Mitochondrial damage is commonly involved in liver injury. We have previously shown that normal mitochondria can be coated with a carrier protein to form complexes that are specifically taken up by liver cells in culture.

The aim of the current study was to determine whether mitochondrial complexes could be specifically delivered to the livers of living rats by intravenous injection.Mitochondria were harvested from fresh mouse liver, mixed with an asialoglycoprotein-based carrier, asialoorosomucoid-polylysine (AsOR-PL), and purified to form complexes.

To facilitate release of internalized mitochondria from endosomes, an endosomolytic peptide, listeriolysin O (LLO) was coupled to AsOR to form AsOR-LLO. Mitochondria alone, mitochondrial complexes with AsOR-PL, and mitochondrial complexes plus AsOR-LLO conjugate all containing the same number of mitochondria were injected intravenously.

Animals were sacrificed, and organs removed and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of mouse mitochondrial DNA, electronmicroscopy (EM), and in situ PCR and hybridization followed by immunohistochemical analyses.Calculations revealed that approximately 27% of the total injected mitochondria was detected in liver, while less than 2% was found in spleen, and <1% in lungs. 

Recombinant Human RBMY1A1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP7035-1mg 1mg
EUR 1742

Recombinant Human ATP6V1F Protein, GST, E.coli-1mg

QP909-1mg 1mg
EUR 1742

Recombinant Human C1D Protein, GST, E.coli-1mg

QP938-1mg 1mg
EUR 1742

Recombinant Mouse PRDX2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10500-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ACP6 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10503-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ADA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10505-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ADK Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10507-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human AKR1B1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10511-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Mouse AKR1B1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10512-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human AKR1C1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10513-1mg 1mg
EUR 2312

Recombinant Human AKR7A2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10514-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human ALDH2 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10515-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human ALDH3A1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10516-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human APOE3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10522-1mg 1mg
EUR 318

Recombinant Mouse APRIL Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10523-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human Artemin Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10524-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human BLMH Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10535-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human BMP13 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10537-1mg 1mg
EUR 1415

Recombinant Human BRAK Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10538-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse BTC Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10539-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Bovine BTC Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10540-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Mouse C5a Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10541-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human CA13 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10542-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human Calumenin Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10543-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human CAT Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10545-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human CDA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10546-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human CDNF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10547-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse CDNF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10548-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Rat CDNF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10549-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse CNTF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10558-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Rat CNTF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10559-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human CST5 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10562-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human CSTA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10563-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human CTF1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10564-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Human CTRB1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10565-1mg 1mg
EUR 155

Recombinant Human CXCL16 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10568-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse DHFR Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10575-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DUSP18 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10577-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DUSP3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10579-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ECHS1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10581-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human Endostatin Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10588-1mg 1mg
EUR 1053

Recombinant Human ErbB3 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10592-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human FGF16 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10601-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human FGF20 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10603-1mg 1mg
EUR 3573

Recombinant Human FGFR1 Protein, Untagged, Insect-1mg

QP10604-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human FGFR2 Protein, Untagged, Insect-1mg

QP10605-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human FGFR4 Protein, Untagged, Insect-1mg

QP10606-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human FKBP1B Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10607-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human FKBP2 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10608-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human FKBP4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10609-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human FLT4 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP10618-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human Fumarase Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10621-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant E.coli G6PD Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10622-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human G6PD Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP10623-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse GAPDH Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10624-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Rat GCSF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10625-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Human GDA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10626-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human GDF7 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10628-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Mouse GDF7 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10629-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Carp GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10631-1mg 1mg
EUR 2158

Recombinant Chicken GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10632-1mg 1mg
EUR 907

Recombinant Ovine GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10634-1mg 1mg
EUR 1116

Recombinant Zebrafish GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10635-1mg 1mg
EUR 2358

Recombinant Porcine GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10637-1mg 1mg
EUR 318

Recombinant Mouse GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10638-1mg 1mg
EUR 2458

Recombinant Bovine GH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10639-1mg 1mg
EUR 745

Recombinant Rabbit GHBP Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10642-1mg 1mg
EUR 3419

Recombinant Human GHRH Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10643-1mg 1mg
EUR 201

Recombinant E.coli GLDA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10644-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human GLUL Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10646-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human GNMT Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10649-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant E.coli GOR Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10650-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human GOT1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10651-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human GOT2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10652-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Rat GPT Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10653-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human GSR Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10655-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant other GST Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10656-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human GSTA1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10657-1mg 1mg
EUR 2312

Recombinant Mouse GSTM1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10658-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human GSTM2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10659-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human GSTM5 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10660-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human HK2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10667-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Yeast IDH1 Protein, Untagged, Yeast-1mg

QP10670-1mg 1mg
EUR 155

Recombinant Human IDH1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10671-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Canine IFNG Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10677-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Rabbit IGF1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10679-1mg 1mg
EUR 1959

Recombinant Human IGF1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10680-1mg 1mg
EUR 291

Recombinant Mouse IGF1 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10681-1mg 1mg
EUR 1325

Recombinant Human IL12 Protein, His, Baculovirus-1mg

QP10722-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human IL17D Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10724-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse IL17E Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10725-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Mouse IL36G Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10729-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Mouse IL36RN Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10730-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant Mouse KGF Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10734-1mg 1mg
EUR 4734

Recombinant E.coli LACTB Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP10738-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant other LDHB Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP10744-1mg 1mg
EUR 155

Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse mitochondrial DNA staining was minimal with mitochondrial complexes alone, strong periportal with mitochondrial complexes co-injected with AsOR-LLO, and absent with mitochondria alone.Targetable mitochondrial complexes can be delivered to rat liver, and the efficiency of that process is greatly enhanced by co-injection of a targetable endosomal release agent, AsOR-LLO.