Mitochondrial damage is commonly involved in liver injury. We have previously shown that normal mitochondria can be coated with a carrier protein to form complexes that are specifically taken up by liver cells in culture.

The aim of the current study was to determine whether mitochondrial complexes could be specifically delivered to the livers of living rats by intravenous injection.Mitochondria were harvested from fresh mouse liver, mixed with an asialoglycoprotein-based carrier, asialoorosomucoid-polylysine (AsOR-PL), and purified to form complexes.

To facilitate release of internalized mitochondria from endosomes, an endosomolytic peptide, listeriolysin O (LLO) was coupled to AsOR to form AsOR-LLO. Mitochondria alone, mitochondrial complexes with AsOR-PL, and mitochondrial complexes plus AsOR-LLO conjugate all containing the same number of mitochondria were injected intravenously.

Animals were sacrificed, and organs removed and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of mouse mitochondrial DNA, electronmicroscopy (EM), and in situ PCR and hybridization followed by immunohistochemical analyses.Calculations revealed that approximately 27% of the total injected mitochondria was detected in liver, while less than 2% was found in spleen, and <1% in lungs. 

Recombinant Human FKBP6 Protein, His, -1mg

QP10610-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human C1D Protein, GST, E.coli-1mg

QP938-1mg 1mg
EUR 1742

Anti-CD3e Antibody [145-2C11], Unconjugated-1mg

QAB2-1mg 1mg
EUR 251

Recombinant other DERA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11658-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DERA Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11659-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human Desmin Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11662-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human DGCR6 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11663-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human DHPS Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11664-1mg 1mg
EUR 2312

Recombinant Human DHRS9 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11666-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DIRAS1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11667-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DLD Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11669-1mg 1mg
EUR 2312

Recombinant Mouse DLL4 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11670-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DLST Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11671-1mg 1mg
EUR 4153

Recombinant Human DLX3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11672-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant other DMGO Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11673-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant other DnaJ Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11674-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human DNAJB4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11676-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DNAJC12 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11678-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DNAJC24 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11680-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DNAJC27 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11681-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant other DnaK Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11682-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human DnaK Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11683-1mg 1mg
EUR 1959

Recombinant Human DNAL1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11689-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DNAL4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11690-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DNALI1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11691-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DOK4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11695-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DPH3P1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11697-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DPPA3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11698-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DPPA4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11699-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human DPPA5 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11700-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DPY30 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11701-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DRG1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11702-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant other DsbA Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11703-1mg 1mg
EUR 1460

Recombinant other DsbC Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11704-1mg 1mg
EUR 1460

Recombinant other DsbE Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11705-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant other DsbG Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11706-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DSTN Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11707-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DTNBP1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11709-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human DUSP10 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11710-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human DUSP13 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11711-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DUSP19 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11713-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DUSP21 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11714-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DUSP23 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11715-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DUT Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11717-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DYNLL2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11718-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DYNLRB2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11719-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DYNLT1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11720-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human DYNLT3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11721-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human DYRK1A Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11722-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EAF1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11724-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EBNA1BP2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11725-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant EBV EA Protein, GST, E.coli-1mg

QP11730-1mg 1mg
EUR 1061

Recombinant EBV EBNA1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11731-1mg 1mg
EUR 1561

Recombinant Human ECH1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11737-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ECHDC1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11738-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant E.coli Ecotin Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11741-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ECSIT Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11742-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EDF1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11745-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EDN3 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11747-1mg 1mg
EUR 363

Recombinant Human EED Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11748-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EEF1G Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11749-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EFNA3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11751-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EFNA5 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11752-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EFNB1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11753-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EFNB2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11754-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant other EGFP Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11759-1mg 1mg
EUR 1959

Recombinant Human EHF Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11762-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EIF1AX Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11763-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EIF1AY Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11764-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EIF1B Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11765-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EIF2S1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11766-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EIF3I Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11767-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EIF3J Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11768-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EIF3K Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11769-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human IL5 Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP1177-1mg 1mg
EUR 4153

Recombinant Human EIF4A3 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11770-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EIF4E Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11771-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EIF4EBP1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11773-1mg 1mg
EUR 1859

Recombinant Human EIF4H Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11774-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human EIF5A Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11775-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Human EIF5A2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11776-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ELAC1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11777-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ELP4 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11779-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ELP5 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11780-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EMC2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11781-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human EMG1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11783-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ENHO Protein, Untagged, E.coli-1mg

QP11787-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ENOPH1 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11789-1mg 1mg
EUR 3655

Recombinant Mouse EOGT Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11795-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EPHB2 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11798-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human EPOR Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11801-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ErbB3 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11803-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Mouse ErbB3 Protein, His, Insect-1mg

QP11804-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ERLIN2 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11806-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ERO1L Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11807-1mg 1mg
EUR 2757

Recombinant Human ERP27 Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11808-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant other ESAT6 Protein, His, Baculovirus-1mg

QP11809-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Recombinant Human ETFB Protein, His, E.coli-1mg

QP11812-1mg 1mg
EUR 5251

Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse mitochondrial DNA staining was minimal with mitochondrial complexes alone, strong periportal with mitochondrial complexes co-injected with AsOR-LLO, and absent with mitochondria alone.Targetable mitochondrial complexes can be delivered to rat liver, and the efficiency of that process is greatly enhanced by co-injection of a targetable endosomal release agent, AsOR-LLO.